Share Lower social cohesion among neighbors and higher crime rates contribute to higher rates of psychotic symptoms among urban children, a new study from researchers at Duke University and King’s College London finds.Previous research has also identified higher rates of psychotic symptoms among children in cities. The new study, available online this week in Schizophrenia Bulletin, is the first to examine why.Psychotic symptoms include paranoid thoughts, hearing or seeing things that others do not, and believing others can read one’s mind. Psychotic experiences in childhood are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Share on Twitter LinkedIn “We wanted to understand how the communities children live in are affecting them,” said Candice Odgers, an associate professor of psychology and public policy at Duke and senior associate director at the university’s Center for Child and Family Policy. “This study helps us identify specific features of neighborhoods that may be especially toxic for children’s mental health.”While a small minority of children overall experience persistent psychotic symptoms and eventual clinical diagnosis, those numbers are higher in cities. In fact, many studies have found a two-fold increase for psychosis in adults and children raised in urban areas, which is concerning given that more than two-thirds of the world’s population is expected to live in cities by 2050, according to United Nations reports.Researchers wanted to determine if certain conditions in urban areas cultivated psychotic symptoms in children. To that end, the study followed 2,232 British twins from birth to age 12. Children’s psychotic symptoms at age 12 were assessed through in-home interviews.Neighborhood features were captured by surveying local residents and constructing high-resolution geospatial profiles from administrative records and Google Street View images. The long-term study controls for family history of mental illness and for the mother’s history of psychotic symptoms.“We brought together our best measures of children’s mental health with innovations in geospatial assessments to test why children growing up in urban environments are at heightened risk for psychotic experiences,” Odgers said.The researchers found that 12-year-olds in urban neighborhoods were almost twice as likely to experience a psychotic symptom than those in non-urban areas. This held true when controlling for residential mobility, social economic status and family psychiatric history. Around 7.4 percent of children living in urban areas had experienced at least one psychotic symptom by age 12, compared to 4.4 percent living in non-urban areas.“Just because a child experiences a psychotic symptom does not mean he or she will develop full-blown mental health disorders,” said Helen Fisher, senior lecturer and MQ Fellow at King’s College London. “Many children grow out of them, but these unusual early experiences can lead to a range of problems later.”Researchers looked at four experiences at the neighborhood level to help determine the cause: supportiveness and cohesiveness between neighbors; the likelihood that neighbors would intervene if problems occurred in the neighborhood; disorder in the neighborhood, such as graffiti, vandalism, noisy neighbors and loud arguments; and crime victimization.Psychotic symptoms were more common in children who lived in areas with low social cohesion, low social control and high neighborhood disorder and whose family had been the victim of a crime.But low social cohesion and crime victimization seemed to have the largest impact. That combination of factors explained a quarter of the association between urban living and psychotic symptoms in children.The study could be used in developing social and clinical interventions for early psychotic symptoms to reduce costly mental health problems later down the line, the researchers said.“One of the encouraging findings is that social cohesion is changeable at the community level and not entirely dependent on economic resources,” Odgers said. “Many of the most cohesive neighborhoods in our study were also the most economically deprived.”Since childhood psychotic symptoms are relatively rare, with less than 6 percent of children in the study reporting them, the researchers recommend the study be replicated. Further research is also needed to better understand psychotic symptoms in later adolescence.The exact nature of the effect of urban neighborhoods on childhood psychotic symptoms is now important to uncover, said Joanne Newbury, a Ph.D. student at King’s College London and lead author of the study.“Do crime and threat increase children’s vigilance and paranoia?” Newbury asked. “Does prolonged exposure to neighborhood stressors undermine some children’s ability to cope with stressful experiences? Further research is needed to identify the social and biological mechanisms underlying our findings.” Share on Facebook Email Pinterest
After spending big and turning the club into a force to be reckoned with, there has been a slight change in the recruitment aspect of things at Manchester City.Of course, big transfer still happen, as exemplified by John Stones last summer, but with the arrival of the Etihad Campus and now with Pep Guardiola at the helm, we are seeing an increase in youth product scouting and purchasing.Joining clubs like Everton (who brought in Steve Walsh as director of football) or Tottenham in looking primarily abroad for talent, it appears scouts have discovered a little gem in France, more precisely in Lens.According to Goal France, the Citizens and Everton have been scouting 16-year-old N’Sana Simon regularly, impressed by his ability to play equally well with both feet in the middle of the pitch.Currently captaining Lens’ U17s, the young midfielder is yet to sign a professional contract with the Ligue 2 club, something that could happen soon, having travelled with the first-team to their winter training camp in Morocco.With teams like Everton and Manchester City after him, an agent might be needed soon, and the youngster is already getting many solicitations.Now back from a bad knee ligament injury, Simon is focusing on his football, and getting that first professional contract.Who with remains the oh so important question, however.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameUndo聽多多 Hearmore.asia1969年前出生的香港居民現可免費試戴頂尖的歐洲助聽器聽多多 Hearmore.asiaUndoMisterStocksThese Hilarious Photos Were Captured On The SubwayMisterStocksUndoSingles50Hong Kong: A 40+ Dating Site That Actually Works!Singles50UndoDating.comTung Chung is actually full of single men. Check them out on this premium dating site!Dating.comUndo美術寶1對1香港媽媽們注意了，速來領取適合4-12歲孩子的繪畫課，手慢無美術寶1對1UndoTheTopFiveVPNEnjoy Netflix Now Without Any RestrictionsTheTopFiveVPNUndo熱門話題生髮率無敵高！96%的禿頭都獲得改善！←這會不會長太多？熱門話題UndoSmart Tech TrendSelf Adjusting Glasses Take Hong Kong by StormSmart Tech TrendUndo
Cristiano Ronaldo nicked the win in the 85th minute 1 You can listen to live La Liga commentary on our new DAB sports radio station talkSPORT 2. For details of how to retune your DAB radio to receive talkSPORT 2, click here.Cristiano Ronaldo stunned the Camp Nou into silence as he struck late on as Real Madrid closed the gap on rivals Barcelona at the top of La Liga.After a goalless first half, Gerard Pique put the hosts ahead from a corner before Karim Benzema acrobatically equalised minutes later with a great bicycle kick.Gareth Bale thought he had won it for Madrid in the 84th minute but a very late and controversial flag ruled the goal out for what seemed to be a harsh foul by the Welshman.Things then got worse for the visitors as captain Sergio Ramos picked up a second yellow card and received his marching orders as Barca looked to nick a winner of their own.But that spurred Real on and Ronaldo hit the bar immediately before cooly chesting down Bale’s cross and hammering into the net with minutes remaining.The gap between the two in La Liga is now cut to seven points.
The Indianapolis Colts defeated the Denver Broncos Sunday to advance to the AFC Championship game against the New England Patriots on Sunday, January 18. As the team continues their playoff run, they’ve announced their playoff events and promotions for this week. Plans include a special edition playoff poster, Poster-Drive Thru at Lucas Oil Stadium, Pep Rally, a “Blue Out Your Bar” contest and more. In addition, fans are asked to show they “Believe In Blue” by printing out a horseshoe at www.colts.com/playoffs and tweeting a photo of it displayed at their home, office or school using #BelieveInBlue.The 2014 Colts Playoffs are presented by Huntington Bank and Verizon Wireless, and sponsored in part by Bud Light.Tuesday, January 13#BelieveInBlue Social Media Campaign Begins at www.colts.com/playoffs#BelieveInBlue Video Contest Begins at www.colts.com/playoffs“Blue Out Your Bar” Contest Continues on www.colts.com/playoffs Thursday, January 15Playoff Poster Drive-Thru, Lucas Oil Stadium South Lot (6:30-8:30 a.m.)Playoff Posters Available at Participating Huntington Banks and Verizon Wireless Stores (see attached list)Pep Rally at Circle Centre Mall (12 – 1 p.m.) More details on all of these events and promotions are available below, as well as online at www.colts.com/playoffs.#BELIEVEINBLUE SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGNColts Nation, do you believe? Show you #BelieveInBlue on social media by posting photos of how you are preparing for the AFC Championship Game. For example, print off the horseshoe at www.colts.com/playoffs and put it outside your office, classroom, living room, etc. and tweet a picture using #BelieveInBlue to show the team that you believe!#BELIEVEINBLUE VIDEO CONTESTLeading up to the AFC Championship Game against New England the Colts will host a video contest for a chance to be featured on Colts.com. BeginningTuesday, January 13, upload a video of you and your friends chanting “I Believe the Colts Will Win” or post it to Instagram or Vine using #BelieveInBlue. More info on www.colts.com/playoffs.“BLUE OUT YOUR BAR” PHOTO CONTEST, PRESENTED BY BUD LIGHTThe Colts are looking for bars and restaurants throughout Indiana and across the country that bleed blue. By submitting a photo of their establishment decked out in Colts décor, bars and restaurants have a chance to win a personalized, framed jersey, Reggie Wayne autographed football and NFL/Bud Light steel cooler. Photos can be submitted at www.colts.com/playoffs or using #BarBlueOut via Twitter or Instagram. The deadline to submit a photo is Sunday, January 18, at 6:40 p.m. ET.PLAYOFF POSTER DRIVE-HRU AT LUCAS OIL STADIUMOn Thursday, January 15, Colts fans are invited to drive thru and pick up a limited edition playoff poster in the south lot of Lucas Oil Stadium from 6:30-8:30 a.m., while supplies last. Colts mascot, Blue, and Cheerleaders will be on-site to help pass out the posters. The first 500 cars will receive a Colts car magnet (limit one magnet per car).In addition, posters will be available in the Emmis Communications (40 Monument Cir, Ste 700, Indianapolis) lobby from 6:30-8:30 a.m.When: Thursday, January 15, 6:30-8:30 a.m.Where: Lucas Oil Stadium South Lot (enter at Gate 8 off of Capitol Ave.)500 S. Capitol Ave, Indianapolis, Ind.PLAYOFF POSTERS AVAILABLE AT HUNTINGTON BANK AND VERIZON STORESWhile supplies last, the Colts special edition AFC Championship playoff poster will be available at participating Huntington Bank branches and Verizon stores beginning Thursday, January 15. See attached for a complete list of participating locations.PLAYOFF PEP RALLYThe Colts will host a playoff-themed Pep Rally at the Circle Centre Mall food court in Downtown Indianapolis on January 15. Beginning at noon fans are encouraged to stop by to pick up a special edition Colts Playoff poster, listen to live music from Dave & Rae and meet Colts alumni players. The first 1,000 fans will receive a free Colts t-shirt.When: Thursday, January 15, 12 – 1 p.m.Where: Circle Centre Mall Food Court (3rd Floor) 49 West Maryland StreetIndianapolis, IN What: Special Edition Colts Playoff PosterFree t-shirt for first 1,000 fansColts Alumni Players1070 The FanRegister to WinColts CheerleadersBlue, the official mascot of the ColtsLive music by Dave and Rae Friday, January 16-Saturday, January 17Colts Blood Drive at Indiana Blood Center Locations COLTS PLAYOFF BLOOD DRIVEVisit any Indiana Blood Center donor center on Friday or Saturday, January 16 or 17, and receive a Colts playoff poster and a long sleeve t-shirt with the Colts throwback logo and Indiana Blood Center logo (while supplies last). For more information visit www.indianablood.org.