Study Why the best soccer teams dont always win

first_img The study, carried out by Gerald Skinner and Guy Freeman from the University of Maryland, used a Bayesian approach to analyze the soccer games in various types of competitions, including the 2006 World Cup. The authors proposed that if the games really did reveal which team was best, an intransitive triplet could not occur. (This is where team A plays B and wins, then team B plays C and wins, and finally team C plays A and wins.)The analysis of the scores of the 2006 World Cup games found that intransitive triplets occurred in 17% of the 355 triplets, which is not much better than the expected random result of 25%. The initial stages basically represent repeated experiments and should produce a more reliable result, according to the study’s authors, but the knockout rounds played by the 16 winning teams are not like repeated experiments, and therefore the results are not reliable. The analysis found that in 2006 the best team had only a 28% chance of winning.The study suggests that a level of confidence could not be obtained unless the game was changed radically, but the idea the authors propose, of having the game continue in extra time until the goal difference is large enough to yield an adequate level of confidence is not workable. Fans of the ‘beautiful game’ may also actually like the idea of not knowing for certain which team was going to win anyway.More information: Journal of Applied Statistics Vol. 36, No. 10, October 2009, 1087-1095, 10.1080/02664760802715922Also available: arXiv:0909.4555v1© 2009 PhysOrg.com Better baseball — Choosing the champs Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — A recent study, published in the October edition of the Journal of Applied Statistics, looked at soccer as being an experiment to determine which of two teams is superior, but their analysis found a high statistical probability that the best team might not win.center_img Citation: Study: Why the best soccer teams don’t always win (2009, October 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-soccer-teams-dont.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Hacker group finds a way to gain root access to Chromecast

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Google fixes APK nightmare-waiting-to-happen, sends patch to partners (Phys.org) —GTVHacker has posted a blog entry describing a hack they’ve done on Google’s new streaming stick Chromecast. Because the process is so simple, it appears as if Google intentionally left the “vulnerability” open for hackers and other commercial enterprises to exploit, much as they have done with Android devices. © 2013 Phys.org Chromecast is a small (flash drive sized) device that connects directly to a television’s HDMI port. Once installed it allows for wirelessly streaming content from a computer or handheld device to the television set. Principle streaming sources include Netflix and YouTube. The introduction of Chromecast created quite a stir when it was released last week as its price is a mere $35. As has been the case with virtually every other hardware device released to the public, hackers appear to have set to work trying to gain access to control the device in ways not intended by the manufacturer.GTVHacker notes that the OS on the device is not Chrome (as its name implies) but a stripped down version of the software used to run Google TV. To gain access, a flash drive was attached to the device and then the power on/off button was held down (causing it to boot to USB mode) as the device was being powered on. Natural code on the device calls for a signed image to be detected on the USB device. As no verification of the image was required, the hackers were able to execute other code that they had written. Specifically, their hack allows for spawning a root shell on port 23.That a hacker team was able to find such a vulnerability and exploit it in just four days is likely no surprise to Google. They’ve been using the services of hacker groups to help test new products since the introduction of Gmail and Android—doing so led to the early development of smartphone apps, and Google is no doubt hoping the same thing happens with Chromecast—early reports suggest its native applications are severely limited. The hack found by the team at GTVHacker means that pretty much anyone that wishes can development custom apps for the device, perhaps making it worth far more than its list price. Explore further Citation: Hacker group finds a way to gain root access to Chromecast (2013, July 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-hacker-group-gain-root-access.htmllast_img read more

Researchers find a way to selectively add saryl groups to amino acid

first_img Biological scientists are interested in modifying proteins because doing so can cause them to work differently in the body, by increasing the time a medicine remains working, for example, or by helping to target certain cells, such as those that are part of a tumor. But modifying a protein without disrupting its ability to function is challenging, as Maynard notes—current approaches generally lead to low yields. One approach, using organometallic reagents has been tried, but has not really caught on due to the strict conditions under which reactions must occur. In this new effort, the researchers have found a way to use such reagents without the restrictions, opening the door to it use. With their technique the organometallic reagents react specifically with thiol groups of free cysteines (amino acids) across a broad pH range. More specifically, the reactions they caused used a palladium reagent to marry an aryl group onto a cysteine residue. Such reactions occur very rapidly, they note, disallowing other reactions from occurring—the results have been shown to be very stable as well, allowing for the possible creation of kits that can be sold to chemists and stored for periods of time. To test their approach, the researchers modified several proteins in different ways, focusing on staple peptides and conjugates—proteins that are useful as therapeutic drugs. They report that they were able to modify one such protein in just ten minutes, with 100 percent yield. The process still needs refining Maynard notes—such as reducing the amount of palladium needed, because the amounts used by the researchers could lead to impurities in the final product. More information: Ekaterina V. Vinogradova et al. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation, Nature (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nature15739AbstractReactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody–drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at MIT has found a way to modify proteins using palladium reagents, allowing for the possible creation of a host of therapeutic drugs. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes their technique, why it may be useful and applications that may benefit from its use. Heather Maynard with the University of California offers an overview of the work done by the team in a News & Views piece in the same journal issue. © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: Nature Simple method for selective bioconjugation of native proteins Citation: Researchers find a way to selectively add saryl groups to amino acid residues in proteins (2015, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-saryl-groups-amino-acid-residues.html Explore furtherlast_img read more

Quantum computing with single photons getting closer to reality

first_img Citation: Quantum computing with single photons getting closer to reality (2016, March 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-quantum-photons-closer-reality.html The researchers, Iman Esmaeil Zadeh, Ali W. Elshaari, and coauthors, have published a paper on the integrated quantum circuits in a recent issue of Nano Letters.As the researchers explain, one of the biggest challenges facing the realization of an efficient Linear Optical Quantum Computing system is integrating several components that are usually incompatible with each other onto a single platform. These components include a single-photon source such as quantum dots; routing devices such as waveguides; devices for manipulating photons such as cavities, filters, and quantum gates; and single-photon detectors. In the new study, the researchers have experimentally demonstrated a method for embedding single-photon-generating quantum dots inside nanowires that, in turn, are encapsulated in a waveguide. To do this with the high precision required, they used a “nanomanipulator” consisting of a tungsten tip to transfer and align the components. Once inside the waveguide, single photons could be selected and routed to different parts of the optical circuit, where logical operations can eventually be performed. “We proposed and demonstrated a hybrid solution for integrated quantum optics that exploits the advantages of high-quality single-photon sources with well-developed silicon-based photonics,” Zadeh, at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, told Phys.org. “Additionally, this method, unlike previous works, is fully deterministic, i.e., only quantum sources with the selected properties are integrated in photonic circuits.”The proposed approach can serve as an infrastructure for implementing scalable integrated quantum optical circuits, which has potential for many quantum technologies. Furthermore, this platform provides new tools to physicists for studying strong light-matter interaction at nanoscales and cavity QED [quantum electrodynamics].”One of the most important performance metrics for Linear Optical Quantum Computing is the coupling efficiency between the single-photon source and photonic channel. A low efficiency indicates photon loss, which reduces the computer’s reliability. The set-up here achieves a coupling efficiency of about 24% (which is already considered good), and the researchers estimate that optimizing the waveguide design and material could improve this to 92%. In addition to improving the coupling efficiency, in the future the researchers also plan to demonstrate on-chip entanglement, as well as increase the complexity of the photonic circuits and single-photon detectors.”Ultimately, the goal is to realize a fully integrated quantum network on-chip,” said Elshaari, at Delft University of Technology and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. “At this moment there are a lot of opportunities, and the field is not well explored, but on-chip tuning of sources and generation of indistinguishable photons are among the challenges to be overcome.” Explore further (Left) Illustration and (right) color-coded microscope image of a nanowire (green) integrated in a photonic waveguide (gray on left, purple on right). In the illustration, the photons emitted from the nanowire are depicted as red spheres. Insets show a light-emitting nanowire, which in the microscope image is attached to the tip of a nanomanipulator. Credit: Zadeh, et al. ©2016 American Chemical Society © 2016 Phys.org More information: Iman Esmaeil Zadeh, et al. “Deterministic Integration of Single Photon Sources in Silicon Based Photonic Circuits.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04709center_img Journal information: Nano Letters Team takes giant step forward in generating optical qubits (Phys.org)—One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Studying bumblebees to learn more about human intelligence and memory

first_img Scientists have developed a variety of methods over the years to measure human intelligence levels, but have made little progress in understanding what underlies the differences they find. In this new effort, the researchers studied bumblebee brains because they are far simpler than human brains.In their experiments, the researchers taught several bumblebees to discriminate between two different types of fake flowers—one type provided sugar water while the other offered quinine, which bees do not like. The team noted how long it took the individual bees to figure out which type of flower would offer a reward and which would not. The group then tested all of the bees two days later to see how well they remembered what they had learned, again taking note of how well the individual bees did on the test.The team then looked closely at the brains of all of the bees using confocal microscopy, which allowed for viewing nerve cells and the connections between them. The team reports that those bees that figured out the flower problem the fastest and had the best memory turned out to have denser neural connections called synaptic complexes than those who performed less well.The researchers suggest theirs is the first study to show that learning, at least visually, can be correlated to increased nerve connection density in some parts of the brain. They also suggest that some degree of the increased density likely could be associated with more opportunities to learn. And while the study was meant to enhance understanding of the factors present in differing levels of intelligence in humans, it is not clear if the results of these experiments are applicable. © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Studying bumblebees to learn more about human intelligence and memory (2017, October 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-bumblebees-human-intelligence-memory.html Explore further Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B More information: Li Li et al. A possible structural correlate of learning performance on a colour discrimination task in the brain of the bumblebee, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1323AbstractSynaptic plasticity is considered to be a basis for learning and memory. However, the relationship between synaptic arrangements and individual differences in learning and memory is poorly understood. Here, we explored how the density of microglomeruli (synaptic complexes) within specific regions of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) brain relates to both visual learning and inter-individual differences in learning and memory performance on a visual discrimination task. Using whole-brain immunolabelling, we measured the density of microglomeruli in the collar region (visual association areas) of the mushroom bodies of the bumblebee brain. We found that bumblebees which made fewer errors during training in a visual discrimination task had higher microglomerular density. Similarly, bumblebees that had better retention of the learned colour-reward associations two days after training had higher microglomerular density. Further experiments indicated experience-dependent changes in neural circuitry: learning a colour-reward contingency with 10 colours (but not two colours) does result, and exposure to many different colours may result, in changes to microglomerular density in the collar region of the mushroom bodies. These results reveal the varying roles that visual experience, visual learning and foraging activity have on neural structure. Although our study does not provide a causal link between microglomerular density and performance, the observed positive correlations provide new insights for future studies into how neural structure may relate to inter-individual differences in learning and memory. Bees use colour-coding to collect pollen and nectar (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Queen Mary University in the U.K. has found that bumblebees with more “synaptic complexes” in their brains are able to learn new things more quickly and also have better memories than those with fewer of them. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B the group describes studying neural connections in individual bee brains and comparing what they found with cognitive abilities.last_img read more

Gaining a better understanding of what happens when two atoms meet

first_imgCredit: K. Yang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2019) The idea of watching two atoms collide might make some people uneasy, as they envision a nuclear bomb going off, but not all such collisions are so dramatic. In this new effort, the researchers measured the magnetic interaction that occurred as two atoms were brought very slowly into contact with one another.Prior research has shown that atoms have what are known as wave functions, which are defined by the probability-based orbits of their electrons. Prior research has also shown that when two atoms move into proximity, as their waveforms overlap, a force called “exchange interaction” arises—and it grows as the two move closer together. The exchange interaction happens all the time, as when you press two fingers together, or in chemistry experiments. But until now, no one had accurately measured its force progressively as two atoms came into proximity. In this new experiment, the researchers have made such a measurement in their lab.The team placed a single titanium atom atop a layer of magnesium oxide, which served as an insulator. They next placed a single iron atom on the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope’s probe. Then, they slowly moved the single iron atom toward the single titanium atom. As they did so, they measured the magnetic effect on the two atoms via two methods. The first was electron spin resonance—a technique that provided very detailed measurements of the weaker interactions. The second involved the use of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy—it gave better results when measuring the stronger interactions. Using two methods of measurement gave the researchers more confidence in their results when they matched. The procedure allowed the researchers to achieve a new level of precision in measuring exchange interactions. It also demonstrated a possible technique for tuning an atom’s magnetic field in a way that might be practical in data storage devices of the future. More information: Kai Yang et al. Tuning the Exchange Bias on a Single Atom from 1 mT to 10 T, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.227203 , https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.03213 Citation: Gaining a better understanding of what happens when two atoms meet (2019, June 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-gaining-atoms.html An international team of researchers has demonstrated a new way to gain a detailed understanding of what happens when two atoms meet. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes their experiments, which involved observing closely as two atoms came into contact with one another. © 2019 Science X Networkcenter_img Explore further Journal information: Physical Review Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers break record for atoms positioned individually in a trap to create defect-free arrayslast_img read more

Indulge in art this festive season

The ‘cottage’ has for 60 years been the abode of Indian handloom and handicrafts and has helped preserve the culture of the country by showcasing its diverse art and craft under-one roof, giving thousands of artisans a new lease of life. Keeping in line with the festive season, the Central Cottage Industries Emporium (CCIC) brings an exclusive range of items that will make perfect gifts for the festive season in its exhibition-cum-sale called Mangal Utsav, being celebrated from 23 October,  2012 till 2 November, 2012 at the Jawahar Vyapar Bhawan, Janpath in New Delhi. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exhibition was inaugurated by Dr. Syeda Ahmed, Member, Planning Commission, Government of India, who speaking on the occasion, said: “I am extremely touched and impressed by the enormous talent our country possesses. Exhibitions like these are perfect platforms to encourage these master craftsmen to keep their talent growing. I think we can make this into a business model so that these artisans can earn a decent livelihood by continuing to make masterpieces and not give up on their art due to financial trouble. I hope to see many patrons of art to come forward to buy these exceptional work of art and help keep the art alive”. Also present at the occasion were Anjali Rai, Chairperson, CCIC and Alka Arora, Managing Director, CCIC. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe unique festive collection will include an array of items such as brass and metalware, sandalwood figurines, pure gold and silver plated products, wooden gift items, marble and soapstone products, painting, handloom products such as festive silk sarees, bags and accessories, ready-to-wear clothing for men, women and children, and a huge range of fabric. You will also be able to meet and greet many master craftsmen from various parts of the country who will give a live demonstration of their work. The cottage has also brought in a rare collection of calligraphy items especially created for this exhibition. The emporium is also offering a special discount on exclusive sarees and women and children wear during the exhibition which only makes this festival celebration more exciting. read more

Touch pads may rule but people still visit libraries

Traditional libraries confronted with dwindling patronage and shrinking budgets continue to find their relevance following the ‘survival of the fittest’ theory, believe librarians at leading libraries.‘Ours is one of the oldest libraries in Delhi. I have been employed here for more than 30 years and have witnessed several trends regarding the usage of library. Though the preferences and needs of the visitors have changed over the years but that hasn’t really affected the number of visitors in the library over the years’ says Radheshyam, an employee at Delhi Public Library, Chandni Chowk. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Many predict that the digital age will wipe public book shelves clean, and permanently end the era of libraries.Librarians too say they are faced with an existential crisis.‘Despite the perceived outdated tag attached to the traditional libraries, both libraries and librarians are irreplaceable for many reasons. The role of a library is to create space either as a physical library, an online library or a hybrid model,’ says Neeti Saxena, Head, India and Sri Lanka, Libraries and Cultural Centres, British Council Library here. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘The amazing amount of useful information on the web has, for some, engendered the false assumption everything can be found online. It’s simply not true,’ says Karan, librarian at Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies.Karan adds ‘While one might use the Internet or a search engine to find these databases, deeper access to them requires registration. You are still online, but you are no longer on the internet. You are in a library.’In the digital age internet is effectively pulling students away from the stacks and revealing a wealth of information, especially to one who is equipped with the tools to find it. Though the traditional libraries are not the beginning and ending point of all scholarly research yet that doesn’t establish that students have started ignoring libraries as effective mediums for research. According to research scholar, Deeksha Chamola, ‘Even when internet does provide actual content, the information is often snack sized or the overall experience cursory a sort of quick reference browsing. Knowledge can be found, but the experience of delving into a book for hundreds of pages just doesn’t happen online.’Best-selling author Brad Meltzer, the Honorary Chair of National Library Week 2012 says, ‘Today’s libraries provide a wide range of opportunities for people with diverse needs and interests. That means providing their communities with tailor made collections and services for people of diverse backgrounds, language abilities and technological skills.’‘Libraries have started using technology to preserve their claim on intellectual adventure but that doesn’t refrain them for fulfilling their traditional purpose of amassing and disseminating knowledge. Technology is integrating itself into the library system, not bulldozing it,’ says Raj Kumar, Librarian at Chandigarh’s AC Joshi Library.He adds ‘Technology also has its own challenges so do have the digital libraries. Just like e-editions of newspapers will not be able to replace traditional print of newspapers, libraries will also continue to find their relevance’. read more

Love and longing on Delhi stage

first_imgThe Modern Theatre Festival brought some meaning to the Capital’s stages. The festival opened with Premchand’s Rangbhoomi and on the second day, Math Ke Raste Mei Ek Din was staged. The theatre festival has been organised by the Department of Art, Culture and Languages, the cultural wing of the Delhi Government and Sahitya Kala Parishad. The festival opened with the staging of Munshi Premchand’s Rangbhoomi. It delineated the journey of a common man, his struggles, the trauma he goes through and the predicaments he faces. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Capturing the travails and traumas of peasant society, this story directed by Surendra Sharma, celebrates the unassailable spirit of the aam aadmi. ‘The novel and its essence is very much prevelant in today’s world. Capturing the travails and traumas of peasant society, Rangbhoomi celebrates the unassailable spirit of the common man,’ said J P Singh, assistant secretary, Sahitya Kala Parishad. Day 2 saw imposing set-up, powerful dialogues, dramatic ambience and hypnotic execution of the actors at the Shri Ram Centre which staged  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixMath Ke Raste Mei Ek Din. The play written by Satish Alekar spoke of love, suffering, soreness, attachment and all that exists unseen. It is the story of a boy in search of a math. During his journey he meets an old man and gets into a long conversation with him. Directed by Suresh Bhardwaj, the play was translated by Seema Mittal and presented byAakar Kala Sangam, Math Ke Raste Mei Ek Din had a very individual feel but when combined, the pieces complemented each other objectively. Gear up for the rest.last_img read more

Food through the ages

first_imgA cook book titled Mukhwas: Indian food through Ages was launched by the Ambassador of France François Richier. The book is a personal attempt by Dr Alka Pande to untangle the various strands of India’s rich food culture.On the occasion, Pande had a discussion with Dr Bhaswati Bhattacharya, physician and Ayurvedic scholar, on the current state of Indian cuisine and the process of rediscovery of indigenous food wisdom underway in India. An art installation and photographs by Rohit Chawla was on display during the soirée. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Mukhwas: Indian Food through Ages is a fascinating survey of India’s culinary history, compounded by the author’s anecdotes, literary quotes and recollections of her life’s experiences. The book trails Indian cuisine in all its glory, thereby doing justice to peoples’ obsession for food. The prologue criticises the factor that threatens the true appreciation of food today – the ‘size zero fetish’. While this may be an undesirable truth, more worrisome is the fascination for international cuisines, thus drawing a curtain on the authentic food that flourished in the gallis and nukkads. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixMukhwas’s real value lies in packaging food as not simply a means for survival but more. In this country food is an instrument of Ayurveda, leading in festivals, feasting and fasting and colonial rulers’ culinary legacies as well.  A new facet the author astutely explores is the ‘food of love’. Apart from increasing sexual desire, food supposedly absorbs the thoughts and emotions of the cook, thereby affecting its taste and people around.last_img read more